GE says that the SWSR membrane removes sulphate to reduce scale and corrosion in the injection well, which can reduce oil recovery and plug the well. According to GE, it is also claimed to have good fouling resistance due to its three-layer membrane design and smooth surface. The membrane can be optimized for use in seawater while providing good hydrodynamics, resulting in longer membrane life. GE says that the SWSR membrane significantly exceeded Petrobras’ required sulphate removal threshold of 99.5%, with reported removal levels exceeding 99.8%. Petrobras verified the performance over a five-month pilot study of assisted operation with 8 inch elements, each 440 ft2. GE introduced the SWSR membrane in May 2015. The new SWSR series is an advancement of the company’s DK series nanofiltration membrane and provides a high transmission of sodium chloride into the permeate water to minimize operating pressures. It also offers a physical barrier for any suspended particles including bacteria, pyrogens and colloids. GE’s new membrane can be retrofitted into existing systems or used in new systems.