Membrane systems play an essential role in the production of all biopharmaceuticals. This includes initial clarification of cell culture fluid by both depth filtration and tangential flow filtration, biomolecule purification by membrane adsorbers, sterilizing grade filtration and bioburden reduction by normal flow filtration, and virus removal by specially designed virus filtration membranes. Recent developments in biomanufacturing are driving new innovations in membrane technology to address the needs associated with continuous bioprocessing, single-use flexible manufacturing, and the production of more complex biotherapeutics for gene and cell-based therapies. This Review examines how the membrane industry has responded to these challenges, with a focus on recent developments in membranes, modules, and processes specifically targeted to biomanufacturing. A brief discussion is also provided of future bioprocessing challenges that will provide unique opportunities for membrane technologies.