The research article 'Direct membrane filtration for wastewater treatment and resource recovery: A review' has been published in Elsevier journal Science of The Total Environment.
Direct membrane filtration has shown great potential in wastewater treatment and resource recovery in terms of its superior treated water quality, efficient nutrient recovery, and sustainable operation, especially under some scenarios where biological treatment is not feasible. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art of direct membrane filtration processes (including pressure-driven, osmotic-driven, thermal-driven, and electrical-driven) in treating different types of wastewater for water reclamation and resource recovery. The factors influencing membrane performance and treatment efficiency in these direct membrane filtration processes are well illustrated, in which membrane fouling was identified as the main challenge. The strategies for improving direct membrane filtration performance, such as physical and chemical cleaning techniques and pretreatment of feed water, are highlighted. Towards scaling-up and long-term operation of direct membrane filtration for effective wastewater reclamation and resource recovery, the challenges are emphasized and the prospects are discussed.