The depletion of phosphorus resources and the excess discharge of phosphorus into waste streams are contrasting problems. The key to solving both problems is to recover phosphorus from the waste streams.
Current phosphorus recovery technologies require high phosphorus concentrations and lack the ability to separate toxic substances from recovered phosphorus products. Membrane separation processes such as nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and electrodialysis are examples of effective methods for solving some of these issues. In this paper, the mechanisms, performance, and influential factors affect phosphorus recovery from membrane separation are reviewed. Membrane fouling, energy consumption, and the selectivity of toxic substances in membrane separation processes were evaluated.
This work will serve as a basis for future research and development of phosphorus recovery by membrane separation processes and as a response to the increasingly pressing issues of eutrophication and the growing depletion of phosphorus resources.